Tagged: archaeology

Transpontine: Experimental music night at Vinyl Deptford

Transpontine: Experimental music night at Vinyl Deptford

This Saturday February 6th there’s a night of experimental/improv music at Vinyl Deptford, the record shop and coffee bar at 4 Tanners Hill,London, SE8: ‘a chance to to hear some rarely heard international musicians…

Bernadette Zeilinger – (AT – recorders) Diego Mune – (AR – guitars) Miriam Seiberstadt- (saxes) Lisa Simpson- (sewing machine) Sue Lynch (sax, flute, clarinet) Richard Sanderson (melodeon and amplification) Adam Bohman (amplified objects, strings and debris)

a response to manchester city council's plan for the future of …

a response to manchester city council's plan for the future of …

The draft proposal is woefully inadequate in that i) it devotes too much of its text to listing matters which have already come about or are well developed and little to a strategic vision for the city centre as a totality ii) it seems overly concerned with facilitating and promoting large scale developer-led projects which citizens are expected to welcome without hesitation and iii) it makes no mention of any resilience planning which, following recent flooding incidents on the Irwell is nothing short of property speculation induced folly. The city needs a comprehensive and genuinely visionary plan which deals with the disjunctions between the various districts the draft report discusses largely in isolation from each other. It also needs a strategy which connects the city centre with its suburbs, physically, socially and economically.

Developing a city requires a more sustainable basis than the inducing of a commercial property boom based on often fragile investment funds.

The dismal quality of the public realm projects the draft strategy praises suggests no awareness of the many global initiatives to create successful urban places, falling back on security as a precondition of access to the public realm, an issue clearly connected to the increase in licensed premises which the strategy also reports uncritically, making no mention of any consequent anti-social issues.

Despite Manchester’s continuing ability to generate good publicity, if this strategy is adopted unaltered, the underwhelming experience of new built environment projects will continue to puzzle and disappoint visitors and, more importantly, citizens, reducing aspirations and increasing alienation from the sort of civic values which should be fostered by our elected officials.

Andrew Simpson: Remembering Mona Road and that newsagents …

Andrew Simpson: Remembering Mona Road and that newsagents …

I well remember Mona Road in the mid-1950s. It was on my daily walk from Lausanne Road (no.7, since demolished), to Edmund Waller Primary School off Dennett’s Road and Walsham Road. The newsagent or ‘paper shop’ on the north side of Mona Road was a little over half way along it towards Dennett’s Road.

I don’t recall the proprietor’s name, but the entrance door was on the left, a large picture window to the right. The customer space inside was fairly small with the wooden counter of newspapers running back, on the right, from the window around in an L-shape to the rear. The interior was not too bright by today’s standards.

As it sold sweets and simple playthings the shop was of course popular with the neighbourhood’s schoolchildren. For example, the Jubbly orange drink came in a pyramidal cardboard carton; you tore off one corner to drink from it. In its optional frozen state, the orange colour drifted to one side, leaving the other as clear ice.

Luvly Jubbly . Among children’s fads of the time, were the Scoubidou plastic weaving kits. You braided and knotted various coloured strands into attractive combinations and forms.

Good for acquiring hand-eye coordination, dexterity, concentration, colour awareness, creativity and sense of achievement at low cost. The shop sold small reels of percussion caps which you would load into your toy sixshooter, or insert individually into the head of a streamlined plastic bomb device. World War II had only been over ten years.

Health and safety and political correctiveness had not yet dawned. For a while, I was an evening paper boy to earn pocket money. The Evening Standard (tabloid) and The Evening News (broadsheet) were the mainstays, with The Star (tabloid) somewhat waning.

Elsewhere in town, the typical corner news-vendor’s cry was Star, News, Standard! You packed your deliveries in a large linen shoulder bag. The newsagent didn’t mark up each paper, as you carried a listing of addresses on a cardboard sheet in the bag.

Soon, you learnt by heart which house took which paper, where the barking dogs lurked, the awkward letterboxes, the long front paths, the broken gates, the tatty doors and those nicely maintained. That particular round took me up Telegraph Hill as far as Kitto Road where, now and then, one householder might tip me 6d (sixpence): very nice of them. I didn’t deliver Sunday papers, although I remember the Sunday Pictorial (later the Sunday Mirror ), Sunday Graphic , News of the World, Sunday Times and so on.

I’m sure the newsagent also sold cigarettes such as untipped Senior Service , Weights , Woodbines , etc, and tobacco (e.g. Old Holborn ) for pipe smokers and those who artfully rolled their own using Rizla cigarette papers (plain or liquorice flavour!) from the colourful packets. A few doors further along from the paper shop, on the corner of Mona Road and Dennett’s Road stood a baker’s shop.

As well as the usual bloomers, tin loaves and all the rest, various cakes were sold; my special favourite was their caraway seed ( seedy ) cake.

If memory serves, those were the only two shops in Mona Road; certainly the south side was Victorian terraced houses and much the same on the north side.

Text Chris Taylor, 2015 Links to third party websites:

The History Anorak: History never stops: 2015 in review

The History Anorak: History never stops: 2015 in review

January Prince Andrew named in US under-age sex case. Australian bush fires.

17 dead in three days of Paris terror, including attack on satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo. USAF announces plans to quit Mildenhall, Alconbury and Molesworth.

Severe winds sweep north and west UK. Two die after being swept out to sea by high waves at Brighton. Severe snow storms in Scotland.

Lost Beagle 2 lander found on Mars, more than 10 years after it went missing during a landing. Lorry fire closes channel tunnel. Stephen Fry marries partner Elliot Spencer.

2.9 earthquake in Winchester. Worst snow on record hits north-east coast USA. (NY and Boston on lock-down) Heavy snow hits northern UK. Manchester airport closed.

Passed away American country music singer-songwriter Little Jimmy Dickens, 94. US skiers Ronnie Berlack, 20, and Bryce Astle, 19. (Avalanche) Actor Rod Taylor, 84. ( The Time Machine ) Comedy actor Lance Percival, 81. Film producer Samuel Goldwyn Jnr, 88.

Film actress Anita Ekberg, 83. Scriptwriter Brian Clemens, 83. ( The Avengers , Danger Man , B ergerac ) Trevor Ward-Davies ( Dave Dee etc ‘s Dozy), 70. “The last Victorian” Ethel Lang, 114. Coronation Street ‘s Deirdre, Anne Kirkbride, 60.

Soup supremo Ena Baxter, 90. Former UK Home Secretary Leon Brittan, 75. Lotte Hass, half of husband and wife diving team Hans and Lotte Hass, 86.

Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, 90. Greek singer Demis Roussos, 68. Colleen McCullough, The Thorn Birds author, 77 Songwriter Rod McKuen, 81. ( Hear him here 1 ) Actress Geraldine McEwan, 82. ( The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ) February TransAsia plane clips bridge and ditches in the sea off Taipei, Taiwan.

Twelve dead.

300-plus migrants killed in the Mediterranean as their boats capsize. Australia signs up for Eurovision Song Contest. Terror attacks on a Synagogue and a free speech debate in Copenhagen.

Two dead, five wounded.

30 year anniversary of Eastenders marked by ‘who killed Lucy’ row. New ichthyosaur fossil found in Doncaster museum. Australia strips Rolf Harris of titles.

Across the Rainbow Bridge New Romantic singer Steve Strange, 55. (heart attack) Northants cricketer Brian Reynolds, 82. ‘Mr Nutella’ Michele Ferrero, 89. Gigi star Louis Jourdan, 93. Actor Alan Howard, 77.

Actress Pamela Cundell, 95. ( Dad’s Army ‘s Mrs Fox) Russian opposition politician, former Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov, 55, shot dead in Moscow. Leonard Nimoy, Star Trek ‘s Mr Spock, 83. March New royal portrait revealed for UK coin obverse.

It’s still snowing in Scotland. Then it’s gale force winds. Solar-powered aircraft – Solar Impulse-2 begins round-the-world trip in Abu Dhabi.

BBC suspends Jeremy Clarkson after a ‘fracas’ with a producer. Cyclone Pam devastates Vanuatu. Lost grave of Don Quixote author Miguel de Cervantes found in Madrid.

Solar eclipse visible in northern hemisphere. Richard III reburied in Leicester Cathedral after being discovered in a council car park. First edition of William Smith’s 1815 geological map of mainland UK found at The Geological Society.

Alps crash plane was deliberately downed by its co-pilot. Depression blamed. Gale force winds last right to the end of the month across UK.

O n the other side Thendara Satisfaction, known as Jagger, 3. Crufts-winning red setter. (Poison) Tango and Cash actor Robert Z’Dar, 64. “Conan the Barbarian”.

10 dead in helicopter crash in Argentina during reality show filming. Simpsons co-creator and Cheers writer Sam Simon, 59.(cancer) Discworld author Sir Terry Pratchett, 66. (Alzheimer’s disease) 21 dead after terrorist attack on Tunis museum.

Musician Andy Fraser, ( Free: All Right Now ) 62. Shaw Taylor, ( Police Five ) 90. Singer-songwriter Jackie Trent, 74.

Singapore’s first prime minister Lee Kuan Yew, 91.

150 passengers and crew killed in Germanwings airline crash in French alps. Andrew Getty, grandson of J Paul Getty, 47. (complications of drug abuse) April 2,000 people evacuated because of electrical fire in Holborn, London. US sailor Louis Jordan, 37, rescued after 66 days lost at sea.

UK election campaigning.

7.8 magnitude earthquake strikes central Nepal Jockey A P McCoy rides his last race at Sandown. Runner Paula Radcliffe takes part in her last race at the London Marathon. National Trust-run Clandon Park House devastated by fire.

Riots in Baltimore, USA. Through the veil Cynthia (first wife of John) Lennon, 75. World’s oldest person, Misao Okawa of Japan, 117.

147 dead in terrorist attack on Kenyan university. World’s oldest person Gertrude Weaver, 116. (Days after taking over the title from Misao Okawa.) Record numbers of refugees die at sea off the Italian coast. Musician Percy Sledge, 74.

German novelist Gunther Grass, 87. Actor Nigel Terry, 69. African American Freddie Gray, 25, fatally injured in police custody.

3,200 plus dead in Nepal earthquake. Keith Harris (Orville ventriloquist) 67. Cinematographer of the Lord of the Rings films Andrew Lesnie, 59. (heart attack) Jean Nidetch, founder of Weight Watchers, 91.

May The Royal baby is a girl: Charlotte Elizabeth Diana. Tories regain power in shock election result. Fallout from the polls includes new leaders for three losing parties.

Second earthquake hits Nepal.

7.3 magnitude. Passenger train derailed in Philadelphia killing at least five people and injuring dozens. Nine dead and 18 injured in biker shootout in Waco, Texas.

4.2 earthquake hits Kent Chaos at FIFA as US begins investigation into alleged corruption. Lots of support for Sepp Blatter, including re-election as President.

3.0 earthquake hits Caernarfon, Wales. Severe storms blast UK.

Heavy rain and gale force winds. Gone beyond Motorcycle racer Geoff Duke, 92. R&B legend Ben E King, 76.

Author Ruth Rendell, 85. Hot Chocolate singer Errol Brown, 71. Blues guitarist B B King.

89. ‘Lifeguard’ dog Bilbo, 12. (Newfoundland from Sennen Cove, Cornwall.) Daredevil athlete Dean Potter, 43. (Parachuting accident.) Television distributor Michael King, 67. (King World Productions: The Oprah Winfrey Show, Dr Phil . ) Star Trek actress Grace Lee Whitney,85. (Yeoman Rand.) Grange Hill actor Terry Sue-Patt, 50. (Benny Green) Nobel Prize winning mathematician John Forbes Nash, Jr.

86. (Inspiration for the film A Beautiful Mind ) June Summer takes a few days to arrive in storm-hit UK. (June 1 is official meteorological start of summer.) FIFA President Sepp Blatter to stand down – but not till next year. Alton Towers closes as 16 injured – four seriously – in crash on Smiler ride. Smiler victim Leah Washington, 17, has her leg amputated.

Robin voted UK national bird. Chris Evans announced as new Top Gear presenter. US Supreme Court rules gay marriage is legal nationwide Second Alton Towers victim Vicky Balch, 20, has leg amputated. “Leap second” added to the world’s clocks to bring them back in sync with the earth.

Crossed the Styx Katherine Chappell, American visual effects editor, 29. (Attacked by lion in game park.) Actor Richard Johnson, 87. ( The Haunting, Julius Caesar, The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas ) Former Liberal Democrat leader Charles Kennedy, 55. (complications due to alcoholism) Band leader James Last, 86. Cookery writer Marguerite Patten, 99. Dracula actor Sir Christopher Lee, 93.

Jazz saxophonist Ornette Coleman, 85. Fagin actor ( You gotta pick a pocket or two 2 ) Ron Moody, 91. Film composer James Horner, 61.

A Beautiful Mind, Apollo 13, Titanic. (Plane crash) Actor Patrick Macnee, 93. ( The Avengers ) Yes bass guitarist Chris Squire, 67. Actor Edward Burnham, 98. ( To Sir with Love, 10 Rillington Place, Doctor Who ) Nine killed in hate-crime shooting at North Carolina church. Day of terrorism around the world: – 38 dead in beach shooting in Tunisia (30 British victims) – 25 dead in Kuwait mosque bombing – man beheaded in attack on French gas factory July UK’s hottest July day on record. (36.7C 98F) Two dead and two hospitalised by lightning strikes in the Brecon Beacons, Wales.

Forth Bridge given Unesco World Heritage Site status Uncertainty continues over Greece’s place in the EU. Several ‘last chances’ pass without resolution. Eventually settle for severe austerity plan.

Police in Scotland take three days to find body of man and injured female passenger after a car crash. (Woman dies four days later in hospital.) UK tourists brought home from Tunisia following terrorism threats. Novak Djokovic beats Roger Federer in Wimbledon final. Prince William starts work as an East Anglian air ambulance pilot.

Bird flu H7N7 confirmed at Lancashire farm. Labour Party leadership contest gets heated. Cyclist Chris Froome is the first Brit to win the Tour de France twice.

Peer Lord Sewel resigns after ‘drugs and prostitutes’ accusation. World’s oldest panda Jia Jia celebrates her 37th birthday in Hong Kong. Joined the choir eternal Cecil the lion, 13.

Shot by a US dentist. ‘British Schindler’ Sir Nicholas Winton, 106. Irish ‘ Paddy McGinty’s Goat ‘ singer Val Doonican, 88. Actor Omar Sharif, 83.

Actor Roger Rees, 71. Actor Aubrey Morris, 89. Nintendo chief executive Satoru Iwata, 55. (cancer) American author E.

L. Doctorow, 84. Four missing, feared dead after explosion at a Cheshire mill.

Two dead after shooting at Lafayette, Louisiana, cinema. Hull schoolgirl Jessica Lawson, 12. (Swimming on a school trip in France) Racing driver Jules Bianchi, 25. (From injuries sustained in Japanese Grand Prix in October 2014) Racing commentator Sir Peter O’Sullevan, 97. Whitney Houston’s daughter Bobbi Kristina Brown, 22. (Found in the bath tub) August Part of an aircraft wing found on Reunion Island identified as from missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370.

Outcry over Cecil the Lion hunt continues. Charity Kids Company closes after funding row. England cricketers regain the Ashes in record-breaking test match run.

Cryptosporidium parasite found in Lancashire water supply. Massive explosion in Tianjin,China. Kent and Sussex under water after unseasonal downpour.

VJ Day – 70 years on. Terrorist bomb at Bangkok temple. Greek PM Alexis Tsipras resigns.

Chinese stock market crash worries world markets. Migrant crisis across Europe as people flee Syria. Bought the farm Pilot Kevin Whyman, 39. (CarFest air crash) Wrestler ‘Rowdy’ Roddy Piper, 61.

Singer Cilla Black, 72. The ‘Last Dambuster’ Les Munro, 96. Minder actor George Cole, 90.

The voice of Hitchhiker ‘s Trillian, Susan Sheridan, 68. (Cancer) Goodnight Mister Tom director Jack Gold, 85 Canine star Uggie, 13. ( The Artist ) Actor Stephen Lewis ( On the Buses Blakey), 88. Death toll for Chinese explosion tops 110. Seven deaths during bull running events in Spain.

Emmerdale actress Kitty McGeever, 44. (Kidney failure) Batgirl Yvonne Craig, 78. Eleven dead in jet crash at Shoreham Airshow. Reporter Alison Parker and cameraman Adam Ward shot dead during a live interview on WDBJ7 TV in Virginia.

TV medium Colin Fry, 53. (cancer) Neurologist Oliver Sacks, 82. ( The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat ) Horror film director Wes Craven, 76. Beaulieu motoring collector Lord Montagu, 88. Beverley Sister Joy, 91.

September Archaeologists discover buried 100+ stone circle at Durrington Walls, near Stonehenge. Work and pensions secretary Iain Duncan Smith criticised for referring to people without a disability as normal . Queen Elizabeth II becomes UK’s longest serving monarch – overtaking Queen Victoria’s 63 years, seven months and two days.

UK Parliament rejects assisted dying bill. Jeremy Corbyn is new Labour leader. Hungary erects border fence to keep out migrants.

8.3 earthquake hits Chile. Fifa boss Sepp Blatter faces criminal investigation. Lunar eclipse meets supermoon.

Is there life on Mars? Nasa says there is water. Gone the way of all things Star of Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In Judy Carne, 76.

Former England and Yorkshire cricket captain Brian Close, 84. Crane collapse at Mecca mosque kills 107. Brian Sewell, art critic, 84.

Novelist Jackie Collins, 77. Legendary baseball player Yogi Berra, 90.

453 people killed in stampede at the Hajj pilgrimage. Actor Dean Jones, 84. ( Beethoven, Love Bug ) Gen Mario Menendez, military governor of the Falkland Islands during Argentina’s occupation in 1982, 85.

Twin Peaks log lady , actress Catherine Coulson, 72. October Massive sinkhole opens up in St Albans street. Smoking in cars with children banned in England and Wales.

5p plastic bag tax introduced in England. Fifa suspends Sepp Blatter. Fatal crash after driver goes the wrong way up the M1.

Northern Philippines hit by typhoon. Oscar Pistorius released to house arrest. Chinese President Xi Jinping visits UK. “Back to the Future” Day.

October 21, 2015 was the date Marty traveled to in the film.

7.5 magnitude earthquake kills 370 people in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Shuffled off this mortal coil Irish playwright Brian Friel, 86. Labour Party elder statesman Denis Healey, 98.

Nine dead in school shooting in Oregon, US. Two dead after bus hits supermarket in Coventry. PC Dave Phillips, 34. (Run down by burglary getaway driver) Antiques Roadshow presenter Hugh Scully, 72.

Former ITN newsreader Gordon Honeycombe, 79.

95 dead in two explosions in Turkish capital. Former Tory chancellor Lord Geoffrey Howe, 88. Labour MP and former minister Michael Meacher, 75.

42 dead in bus and lorry collision near Bordeaux. One shot dead at Tennessee State University in Nashville. Coronation Street actor Peter Baldwin, 82.

Hollywood actress Maureen O’Hara, 95. Five killed as whale-watching boat sinks off the coast of western Canada.

16-year-old Bailey Gwynne stabbed at school in Aberdeen. Happy Days diner owner Al Molinaro, 96.

224 killed in Russian air crash in Sinai. November Egyptian flights cancelled after fears that plane crash was caused by bomb. World Anti-Doping Agency brands Russia’s athletes “cheats”.

More than 40 dead in suicide bomb attacks in Beirut. Magnitude 7.0 earthquake hits Japan Night of horror in Paris as more than 128 die in terrorist attacks.

170 taken hostage in Mali hotel. Russian air crash was a bomb say experts.

Russian warplane shot down by Turkey. UK flights to Sharm el Sheik stopped until January. Great Britain wins the Davis Cup for the first time since 1936.

RIP BBC Radio 4 newsreader Peter Donaldson, 70. Oscar winning screen writer and actor Colin Welland, 81. Eleven-time champion jockey Pat Eddery, 63.

Motorhead drummer Phil Taylor, 61. Brothel keeper Cynthia Payne, 82. Former West German chancellor Helmut Schmidt, 96. “Alf Garnett” actor Warren Mitchell, 89.

Henry VIII actor Keith Michell, 89. Veteran Bollywood actor Saeed Jaffrey, 86. New Zealand rugby union star Jonah Lomu, 40.

Bless This House actor, Robin Stewart, 69. December Trackway with 100-plus dinosaur footprints found on the Isle of Skye. Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg gives 99% of company to charity.

14 killed in terrorist shooting in San Bernadino, California. UK begins bombing raids on Syria. Structural faults close the Forth Road Bridge.

Storm Desmond floods Cumbria and Lancashire. Cumbrian village Glenridding floods for the second time in five days. World Climate Summit agrees to limit global temperature increase 2 degrees.

87 killed in attacks on military sites in Burundi. UK astronaut Tim Peake reaches the International Space Station. Last round pound coin minted in the UK.

Premiere of the latest Star Wars movie. UK’s last coal mine in Kellingley, North Yorkshire closes. Glenridding floods for third time in three weeks.

Widespread flooding across the North of England, Wales and Southern Scotland wrecks Christmas Day. Storm Frank piles on the misery.

300 year old bridge in Tadcaster, North Yorkshire collapses under pressure of rainwater. Taking harp lessons Colditz star Anthony Valentine , 76.

Crime author William McIlvanney, 79. Are You Being Served? (Mr Rumbold) actor Nicholas Smith, 81. Emmerdale actress Shirley Stelfox, 74.

MASH star Harry Morgan (Col. Potter) 96. TOWIE’s Nanny Pat, 80.

Lord Greville Janner, 87. Football player, pundit and commentator Jimmy Hill, 87. Conductor Kurt Masur, 88.

Lost Boys actor Brooke McCarter, 52. (Genetic liver deficiency) Former England football coach Don Howe, 80. Motorhead frontman Lemmy, 70. (Cancer) Specials drummer John Bradbury, 62. Harlem Globetrotter Meadowlark Lemon, 83.

References ^ Hear him here (www.youtube.com) ^ You gotta pick a pocket or two (www.youtube.com)

Death by Dancing: New Cross (1940) and Bermondsey

Death by Dancing: New Cross (1940) and Bermondsey

A couple of tragic tales of death by dancing, hopefully those going out on New Year’s Eve can avoid such dangers. The first relates to the New Cross Palais de Danse – still going today as the Venue in New Cross Road – the second occured at a Christmas party in Bermondsey. ‘Witness ‘jitterbugs’ at inquest on girl who fell’ – Manchester Evening News, Friday 24 May 1940: Giving evidence at an inquest at Lewisham to-day, a young man stepped from the witness-box to give an exhibition of the jitterbug dance to the coroner, Dr. W.

H. Whitehouse. A verdict of accidental death was recorded on Virginia Guidotti (19), Wickham Road, Brockley, London, who died in hospital.

She had fallen while dancing the jitterbug, at New Cross Palais de Danse. Henry George Cox, of Park Hill Road. Deptford, said they danced the jitterbug, in which he explained they did all kinds of fantastic and funny things.

He then stepped on to the coroner s bench and, locking his hands, went through various movements of the dance. At one stage, he said, the girl fell backwards on the floor and he fell on her. The Coroner: It is peculiar.

It sounds to me very vulgar. Cox said that after the fall he suggested that the girl should have a glass of water and she said that she would be all right. Evidence was given that the management of the Palais de Danse had made efforts to stop the dance being performed. ‘The Fatal Thirteen – Death from excessive dancing’- South London Press, 3 January 1903: Dr Waldo held an inquest at the Southwark Coroner’s Court on Wednesday on the body of Mary Ann Cocklin, aged 35 years, the wife of a Bermondsey labourer.

John Cocklin, the husband, stated that he and the deceased went to a Christmas party at the house of a relative on Christmas Day, and kept on dancing until after midnight. Deceased then lay down to rest, but awoke in a fright, screaming that three men were after her. Dr Waldo: Had she been drinking any spirits?

Witness: No, sir, only port wine. We had nothing but port wine, any of us. Dr Waldo: What happened when she came to herself again?

Witness: She went down stairs and resumed dancing to the music of an automated piano organ we had in the house. I next heard she was very ill, and that she had again gone to rest, but had turned giddy and fallen down the stairs. Dr Waldo: How many?

Witness: The fatal 13. Susan Poore, a neighbour, stated that she heard the deceased fall. She was taken to Guys Hospital, where she died the same day.

The medical evidence showed that death was due to fracture of the thigh caused by the fall, which was the result of giddiness produced by dancing.

A verdict was returned accordingly’.