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Xylophone Productions presents 'Can You Dig It' touring around …

Xylophone Productions presents 'Can You Dig It' touring around …

Xylophone Productions presents Can You Dig It; Full of comedy songs about growing your own vegetables, including a powerful love song to Alan Titchmarsh, and a virtuoso performance on a cucumber trumpet, Can You Dig It? will appeal to gardeners and non-gardeners alike! www.xylophoneproductions.co.uk 1 Can You Dig It will be touring around Norfolk throughout March; along with our Village Hall promoters, Creative Arts East has been working with Pub is the Hub to create a special showcase of Live Theatre performances in pubs in Norfolk.

Terry Stork, Advisor for Pub is The Hub commented: We ve been delighted to work with Karen and the team from Creative Arts East to set up these live productions in rural community pubs. Nothing beats live performance for excitement, so to bring it into the heart of local communities will be a real treat for locals who can t always get out to venues in major towns and cities. The Banningham Crown on Thursday 3 rd March at 7.30pm (Pub) Colby Road, Banningham, Norwich, Norfolk, NR11 7DY Tickets: 10 Ticket price includes Supper Box Office: 01263 733534 Sedgeford Village Hall on Friday 4 th March 7.30pm Jarvie Close, Sedgeford, Norfolk PE36 5NG Tickets: 12.00 which includes a glass of wine.

Box Office: 01485 570097 | 01485 579355 The Mermaid Inn Saturday 5 th March 8pm (Pub) Church Street, Elsing, Nr Dereham, Norfolk, NR20 3EA Tickets: 5 Ticket price includes A mug of chunky allotment soup and a doorstep for dipping Box Office: 01362 637640 Cley Marshes Visitors Centre Thursday 10 th March 6.30pm Coast Road, Cley, Holt, Norfolk, NR25 7SA Tickets: 12 per person Box Office: 01263 740008 Coach and Horses, Friday 11 th March 7.30pm 77 Manor Road, Dersingham PE31 6LN Tickets: FREE EVENT Ludham Village Hall Saturday 12 th March 7.30pm Norwich Road, Ludham, NR29 5PB Tickets: 8 proceeds go to Ludham Church Box Office: Tickets available from Ludham Butchers or by SAE and Cheque to Ludham PCC, The Limes, Norwich Road, Ludham, Norfolk, NR29 5QA Ashill Community Centre on Sunday 13 th March 7.30pm Hale Road, Ashill, Norfolk, IP25 7AX Tickets: 8 Box Office: 01760 441196 | 01760 441374 The Pavilion Hindringham Saturday 26 th March 7.30pm (Pub) Wells Road, Hindringham, Norfolk, NR21 0PL Tickets: 5 including soup and roll, Numbers are limited so book early. Raffle for Pavilion funds. Box Office: Box office: 01328 878805 This event is organised in partnership with Creative Arts East with funding by Arts Council England, Norfolk County Council and Breckland Council.

For further information on this and other Creative Arts East events please go to: www.creativeartseast.co.uk/live/whatson.asp or contact Karen Kidman on 01953 713390 or [email protected] 2 3 advert Monarch Catering Services, Norfolk, Suffolk Related References ^ www.xylophoneproductions.co.uk (www.xylophoneproductions.co.uk) ^ www.creativeartseast.co.uk/live/whatson.asp (www.creativeartseast.co.uk) ^ [email protected] (icenipost.com)

Many Games Have I Seen…: Frimley Green 1 v 1 Ash United

Many Games Have I Seen…: Frimley Green 1 v 1 Ash United

Saturday 13th February 2016 Recreation Ground, Frimley Green Combined Counties League Division One Admission: 6.00 Programme: 1.00 Attendance: 40 (estimate) Match Rating: 3 With heavy rain forecast throughout the morning, I decided to head to south-west Surrey today with the possibility of a last minute diversion to the 3G pitch at Alton Town for a back up in case my intended game was postponed late on. Happily the game survived so that I could watch a game on grass today. This game would also have the added dimension that it would be a local derby, with less than four miles between the two clubs.

The Frimley Green Recreation Ground is about a 20 minute walk from Farnborough North train station. The football ground is fenced off from the rest of the recreation ground by green see through fencing. Behind one length is a grassy hill which makes for an attractive backdrop to the ground but also offers a good vantage point to watch the game from without paying.

On this side of the pitch, an atcost all-seater stand straddles the half way line. On the opposite side there is a brick building attached to a rather less attractive breeze block building with a cast iron roof. In front of this building, there is a covered standing area, whilst to the other side of the brick building, there is a covered area with a roof but no wall to it.

Around most of the rest of the ground there is just hard standing, apart from a small section between the seated stand and a corner flag. The 24 page programme covered the important fact but with almost half of the pages advertising, was very light on interesting reading material. This was a game between two mid table teams, with little prospect of challenging for a promotion spot.

Frimley Green went into this game in eighth places, with nine wins and two draws from 20 games, while Ash United were in eleventh place, with seven wins and four draws from their 20 games. When the two teams met over the Christmas period, Ash made home advantage count with a 2-1 win. On a cold, overcast afternoon with occasional light drizzle, Frimley Green started the game strongly and took the lead on 13 minutes with a great strike driven in from 30 yards by Dan Milborrow.

They should have doubled their lead within a minute when Ben Acton ran onto a ball over the top, but placed his shot wide of the goal. But after Ash had completely dominated the opening half hour, they equalised on the break. The ball was launched downfield and the striker ran onto the ball with two covering defenders, but he managed to eventually get his shot away to send the ball low past the keeper.

Ash now assumed the ascendancy, and on 34 minutes saw a shot come back off the inside of the far post.

Into the second half, which started as the first half had ended, with Ash in the ascendency, passing up a couple of good chances to take the lead, but in the final 20 minutes it was all Frimley Green, and they will wonder how they didn t score, foiled by a combination of near misses and terrific saves.

Indeed, after a shaky start by the visiting keeper, which promoted the Frimley Green bench to shout to his players “he can’t catch, he can’t kick, he can’t save”, he was in inspired form thereafter, and certainly had the last laugh as he denied his mockers the win, and certainly Ash would be the happier of the two teams to have shared the points here today.

Many Games Have I Seen…: AFC Telford United 1 v 2 AFC Fylde

Many Games Have I Seen…: AFC Telford United 1 v 2 AFC Fylde

Saturday 30th January 2016 New Bucks Head, Wellington National League North Division Admission: 14.00 Programme: 2.50 Attendance: 1035 Match Rating: 4 When I originally booked train tickets for today a couple of months ago, it was with the aim of ticking off another of the 92 with a visit to Shrewsbury Town. Unfortunately for me, in the meantime they reached the fourth round of the FA Cup, with that fixture replacing the scheduled league fixture. Although they were drawn at home to Sheffield Wednesday, tickets were only available to those with a purchase history, and so I planned instead to get off the train a stop early and tick off a ground in the National League North, a very rare occasion indeed for me.

New Buck’s Head is about a 15 minute walk from Wellington train station. It is a modern, relatively new ground, built in 2003, but has some nice individuality about it, offering very comfortable, good facilities, to make it a pleasant place to watch non-league football. Along one length is the rather impressive main single tiered all-seater stand.

Providing the only seating in the stadium, views are excellent, with good elevation and space between rows. Executive boxes are located above the spectator seating, with a control centre in one corner and offices and the players’ tunnel in the other. Behind both goals are virtually identical stands covering terracing, with an attractive blue curved roof on each.

An interesting feature of the home end was the rather attractive graffiti murals along the concourse. The opposite end is allocated to away fans when large numbers are expected, but it was closed today. Behind this stand and towards the corner is a hotel.

Along the remaining length is uncovered terracing, with a building housing the supporters bar, club offices and a study centre behind the middle section. The 64 page programme was excellent, with plenty of colour and attractively laid out, and with plenty of interesting and relevant reading material. After relegation from the Premier division last season, AFC Telford United are in grave danger of suffering successive relegations, as they went into this game bottom of the table, three points from safety, with six wins and five draws from their 27 league games, although they had picked up some form, with two wins and a draw since the turn of the year before a disappointing home defeat against fellow relegation threatened Hednesford Town in midweek.

Having finished runners up in this division last season, AFC Fylde are well on course to reach the play-offs again this season, in fourth place with 14 wins and four draws from their 24 games. When the two teams met in October, AFC Fylde won 1-0. On a sunny afternoon, after an even start, the visitors took the lead with six minutes on the clock.

The ball was played low diagonally forward to the feet of Danny Rowe, who took the ball deep into the area, and had plenty of time and space to check back before firing the ball low across the keeper and into the net. Telford didn t let their heads drop though, and they were back on level terms on 14 minutes. After a short corner, the ball was crossed to the far post perfectly by Sean Clancy, and John Cofie nodded the ball in from close range.

Telford continued to look threatening and a lovely drive from outside the area by Lucas Dawson struck the crossbar. Somewhat against the run of play, AFC Fylde went back into the lead on 38 minutes. Danny Lloyd was played in completely unmarked down the left channel, and eventually he fired past the keeper from a fairly tight angle and the ball went in off the far post.

The match became increasingly feisty, with some cynical play from the visitors in particular with off the ball incidents, robust challenges and moaning to the referee. Half time came at a good time with a red card becoming increasingly inevitable. That there were no further goals (and that the game finished with nobody sent off) in the second half was astonishing, as the home side came desperately close to scoring several times, having by far the better of the second half, while the visitors looked dangerous on the break despite a poor second half performance by them.

Telford had three stand out chances to claim a vital point. On 55 minutes, Dave Hibbert shot over the keeper from just outside the area but the ball rebounded off the far post. On 63 minutes, an overhead kick forced a save at full stretch by the keeper, as did a glancing header from a free kick on 71 minutes.

But after that, the chances dried up as Fylde weathered the storm as they held on for three points to consolidate their place in the play-offs positions.

Although Telford will feel bitterly disappointed not to have claimed at least a point from this game, at least results went for them today and remain three points behind the two teams immediately above the relegation zone and the performance they showed today will give them great heart that they can pick up the necessary points to lift them out of the relegation zone

Many Games Have I Seen…: Alfold 2 v 1 Montpelier Villa

Many Games Have I Seen…: Alfold 2 v 1 Montpelier Villa

Saturday 16th January 2015 Recreation Ground, Alfold Southern Combination League Division Two Admission: None Programme: 1.00 Attendance: 32 Match Rating: 3 With my Network Railcard expiring last week and fancying a drive more than a train journey today, I decided to drive to the West Sussex / Surrey border to recomplete the Southern Combination Football League, at a venue that is quite difficult to reach by public transport. There was also the added attraction that I would be able to catch the second half at nearby Loxwood after this game which kicked off at 2pm. The Alfold Recreation Ground is located about a mile to the north of Alfold village and situated within the Alfold Sports and Social Club.

From the main road, a short lane leads to the large and welcoming clubhouse, with the football pitch to the right and a play area, village hall and cricket field to the left. The location is peaceful and spacious, and would probably be more rurally attractive closer to the summer months. There is wooden railing along the length where the dugouts are located, lined with a hedge, behind which is a training pitch and then farmland.

The rest of the pitch is roped off, with hedging behind one end and the clubhouse behind the other. Behind the remaining length is the lane and the rest of the recreation ground. There is no hard standing available, which caused muddy, squelchy conditions pitchside, but to the groundsman’s enormous credit, the pitch itself was in fine condition considering the recent prolonged and heavy rain and most recently hard frosts over the last couple of nights.

Considering the level, the programme was basic but informative enough, 12 pages printed in colour with an attractive cover, welcome message, league table and predicted line-ups. This is the first season that both team have played in the Southern Combination League, having profited from promotion based on their facilities rather than their on the field achievements. Montpelier Villa finished last season in eighth place in the Mid Sussex League Premier Division, while Alfold finished in sixth place in the second tier of the West Sussex League.

This season, Alfold went into this game in 13th place in the 16 team division, with three wins and four draws from their 17 games, while Montpelier Villa were two places better off, with five wins and a draw from their 15 games. When the two teams met in the league in September, Alfold won 1-3, but in the league cup game, also played at Sussex University, Montpelier Villa won 4-2. On a rare bright and sunny afternoon – with occasional cloud cover – Alfold started the game doing most of the attacking, but gradually the visitors got a foothold in the game and they took the lead on 17 minutes with a lovely goal by George Hatton, shooting the ball into the top left hand corner from just outside the area.

Alfold got back on level terms on 40 minutes when Daniel Hallett shot the ball into the net from a central position after the ball was played back to him by Ben Thompsett.

1-1 was a fair reflection on a tight first half between two evenly matched teams, but on 55 minutes, Alfold almost took the lead when a shot from outside of the penalty area struck the underside of the crossbar. They did take the lead on 65 minutes though. Zach Gray passed the ball to the edge of the penalty area, and Hallett spun with the ball, took a stride towards goal before firing the ball past the keeper.

Alfold looked fairly comfortable with their lead for the remainder of the match apart from four minutes from time, when a floated shot from outside of the area was just tipped over by the keeper, before Alfold went down the other end and, with two attackers against one defender, the ball was played across the field to a player on his own, but his eventual shot was smothered.

A couple of minutes later and the visitors thought they had equalised when a free kick into the box was headed down and the ball was tucked home but the officials ruled it out for offside.

But Alfold claimed the three points, which they probably just about deserved, although the game really could have gone either way.

TruthSeeker24's anti-N.W.O.</p><p>corner: Winter 2016 Part 5

TruthSeeker24's anti-N.W.O.

corner: Winter 2016 Part 5

The Birmingham Bus Boycott (After 60 Years) More than 60 Years have passed since the Montgomery Bus Boycott. We learn lessons from that event and we will continue to fight for the freedom of black people and of the rest of the human race. Black people in Montgomery, Alabama democratically decided that they would boycott the city buses until they were allowed to seat any location in a city buses that they desire.

Alabama back then was filled with segregation or Jim Crow apartheid. Black people who rode segregated buses experienced violence, theft of their payment to the buses, unfair seating arrangements, verbal disrespect, and other forms of mistreatment. Black people have had enough and that is why black people organize the Bus Boycott.

Rosa Parks was a hero was a leader in the movement. Yet, we have to acknowledge other black people who opposed injustice long before the boycott existed. In 1945, a black woman named Geneva Johnson just opposed injustice and she was arrested from the public transit bus in Montgomery, Alabama.

In 1949, the black professor Jo Ann Robinson sat in the front of the bus and the bus driver screamed at her for doing so in 1949. Black women like Viola White, Claudette Colvin (who was a 15 year old high school student at the time refused to give up her bus seat to a white woman nine months before Rosa Parks did it), Katie Wingfield, and other Sisters were arrested for challenged the white racist power structure involving segregated public bus lines and refusal to vacate seating reserved of white passengers. It was the federal court suit involving Colvin that eventually led to a Supreme Court order outlawing segregated buses.

Epsie Worthy in 1953 was robbed of her transfer fee on the bus. Later, the bus driver assaulted her unjustly. Epsie used self-defense to defend herself and she was arrested.

She had to pay a 52 dollar fine and spent time in jail. During the 1950 s, Pastor Vernon Johns (one of the greatest civil rights leaders in history) was forced to give up his seat to a white man. He later tried to get other black people to leave the bus in protest.

In September 1, 1954, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church.

In March 2, 1955, 15 year old Claudette Colvin was arrested for refusing to get up from her seat. In October 21, 1955, 18 year old Mary Louise Smith was arrested. Rosa Parks (who was a social activist long before the 1950 s) was arrested too since she refused to get up from a seat.

Rosa Parks was arrested in December 1, 1955. The boycott lasted for 13 months. The Womens Political Council of the WPC was created in 1946 to fight Jim Crow oppression on Montgomery city buses.

They met with Mayor W. A. Gayle in March of 1954 to fight for justice.

WPC President was Jo Ann Robinson. Rosa Parks (who was bailed out of jail by E.D. Nixon, Clifford Durr, and Virginia Durr) and others were involved in the boycott.

Black women led the movement too. Many black women were laborers, teachers, nurses, etc. They relied on the buses heavily to travel to and from work.

The white population in Montgomery heavily on black people too economically. So, the bus boycott revolved heavily involved a collaboration between the black poor, the black working class, and the black middle class in order for them to work together. In that sense, the boycott would be successful.

Black people formed taxi services to get black workers to and from work during the bus boycott. E.D. Nixon was the past NAACP leader of the Montgomery chapter.

The new minister Dr. King Martin Luther King and Ralph Abernathy (both preachers) worked in the boycott movement too. Many of the plans and actions of the boycott were organized in churches like Dexter Avenue Baptist Church and especially at the Holt Street Baptist Church.

The Montgomery Improvement Association was one leading group in the movement. Dr. King was elected President of the MIA in December 5.

He was elected President since Dr. King was new and he wasn t in Montgomery long enough to have strong friends or enemies according to Rosa Parks. Tuskegee and Montgomery attorney Fred Gray represented Colvin days following her arrest and Parks in the boycott case.

Also, Claudette Colvin was a social activist too. She was part of Rosa Parks Youth Council in the NAACP. E.D.

Nixon was a strong organizer of the Bus Boycott. During the 1920 s and the 1930 s, Nixon worked with the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. This was lead by A.

Philip Randolph and this group wanted to organize workers into that union. Also, Rosa Parks didn t rule out the righteous use of force. Rosa Parks admired Malcolm X and spoke in the funeral of Robert Williams, who supported armed self defense by the black community.

The boycott caused 90 percent of Montgomery s black citizens to not ride public buses. The demands of the MIA were rejected by the white establishment, so the boycott continued well into 1956. A carpool services existed on the advice of T.J.

Jemison (who organize a carpool during the 1953 bus boycott in Baton Rouge). The MIA carpool had about 300 cars. Early meetings between city officials and the MIA caused no real agreement (which was organized by Robert Hughes tans others of the Alabama Council for Human Relations).

In early 1956, the homes of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and E.D.

Nixon were bombed. Dr. King s house was bombed in January 30, 1956.

Dr. King claimed the crowd, some of whom wanted violent retaliation by saying: Be calm as I and my family are. We are not hurt and remember that if anything happens to me, there will be others to take my place.

On February 1, 1956 Fred D. Gray and Charles D. Langford file the Browder v.

Gayle lawsuit on behalf of four female plaintiffs to challenge the constitutionality of city and state bus segregation laws. On that date, the home of E.D. Nixon was bombed.

No one is injured. By February of 1953, the city used an injunction against the boycott. Over 80 boycott leaders were indicted.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was tired and convicted on the charge (of promoting conspiracies that interfered with lawful business which can from a 1921 law).

A National Deliverance Day of Prayer (on March 28, 1956) to support the bus boycott takes place, with several cities outside the South taking part. Women such as Robinson, Johnnie Carr, and Irene West sustained the MIA committees and volunteer networks. Mary Fair Burks of the WPC also attributed the success of the boycott to the nameless cooks and maids who walked endless miles for a year to bring about the breach in the walls of segregation (Burks, Trailblazers, 82).

Bayard Rustin and Blenn E. Smiley gave Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

advice on nonviolence, especially on Gandhian techniques. Rustin, Ella Baker, and Stanley Levison founded In Friendship to raise funds in the North for southern civil rights efforts, including the bus boycott. The MIA was supported nationwide and worldwide.

More media coverage came about to describe the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In June 18, 1956, Rev. U.

J. Fields apologized to the MIA in a mass meeting for making the causation that MIA leaders were misusing funds. On June 5, 1956, the federal district court ruled in Browder v.

Gayle that bus segregation was unconstitutional. In November 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed Browder v.

Gayle and struck down laws requiring segregated seating on public buses. The court s decision came the same day that King and the MIA were in circuit court challenging an injunction against the MIA carpools. Later, the MIA waited until the order to desegregate the buses came to Montgomery.

The Supreme Court upheld the lower court s ruling. So, on December 20, 1956, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

called an end to the boycott. The community of Montgomery, Alabama agreed. The next day, Dr.

King, Ralph Abernathy, Ed. D Nixon, and Glenn Smiley boarded an integrated bus. King said of the bus boycott: We came to see that, in the long run, it is more honorable to walk in dignity than ride in humiliation.

So we decided to substitute tired feet for tired souls, and walk the streets of Montgomery (Papers 3:486). Violence continued against black people. In December 23, 1956, someone fires a gun shoot into Dr.

King s home. The next day, 5 cowardly white men attacked a 15 year old black girl at a Montgomery bus stop. Rosa Jordan was shot in both legs in December 26, 1956.

On January 10, 1957, four churches and two homes are bombed: Bell Street Baptist, Hutchinson Street Baptist, First Baptist and Mount Olive Baptist, plus the homes of the Revs. Robert Graetz and Ralph Abernathy. An unexploded bomb is found on the porch of King s parsonage.

So, white racist terrorism was common then and now. The Montgomery Bus Boycott represented a new era of the civil rights movement and it was the beginning of the end of the evil of legalized Jim Crow apartheid. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was the blueprint of not just opposing segregation in the South, but opposition to any injustice in general.

The French Revolution We are near 225 years since the beginning of the French Revolution. It is important to know about this history. We have seen religious liberty promoted by the late King Henry IV of France with his his Edict of Nantes (that gave political and religious liberty rights to the Huguenots of France).

We also have seen evil and tyranny promoted by Cardinal Richelieu and King Louis XIV (who infamously called himself the “sun king”). This Revolution was one of the most important revolutions in human history. It is divided into 4 major phases.

The first one was the moderate phrase of the National Assembly, which established a constitutional monarchy (from 1789-1791), the second one was the Reign of Terror (1793-1794), The Age of the Directory (1795-1799), and finally the Age of Napoleon (1799-1815). The ideals of the Enlightenment and the French participation in the American Revolution influenced the French people to view their government in new ways. Many people in France were inspired by the American Revolution when colonists defeated the monarchy of the British Empire.

One member of the French Revolution was the moderate Marquis de Lafayette. He aided the American Revolution. He was a nobleman and a military commander who helped American forces to defeat the British during the Battle of Yorktown.

Marquis de Lafayette also wrote the first draft of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Thomas Paine also defended the French Revolution. The old system of French society was called the ancien regime.

Many French people overthrew the absolute monarchy and established a new government. Factions (or groups of people grew) and nationalism (or the love of one s country) developed too. Cities in France like in Paris and Marseilles were active in the French Revolution.

French Society by the late 18th Century France previous had great economic development and grow of industry. It promoted the Enlightenment principles among many of its people. Yet, by the late 18th century, economic and political problems existed.

There was the great famine of 1789 that caused peasants to starve and come into the countryside. Grain prices then soared because of the famine. Even workers in France had to pay 80 percent of their income in taxes.

King Louis XVI called an Estates General Assembly of Notables in 1787 for the first time in over a century. By 1789, France was heavily divided between the rich and the poor. French society was divided into 3 classes called estates.

The King of France was not part of any estate as he held absolute power in France before the Revolution. The names of the 3 Estates are the following: 1. First Estate (They included the clergy or the priests and other members of the Church.

They criticized the Enlightenment for its views on religion. The Enlightenment scholars believed in a separation of church and state, which contradicted Roman Catholic Church doctrine). The Catholic Church and the rest of the clergy in France owned 10 percent of the land, but they paid no taxes.

They collected tithes and enjoyed an enormous amount of wealth. The First Estate gave services to people like schools, hospitals, and orphanages. They represented 100,000 Catholic clergy.

2. Second Estate (They were the nobility. They or the nobles held major government jobs).

They defended the land. They receive little financial income as compared to the First Estate or the King. They didn’t want to pay taxes and they resented how some of the middle class has positions in France.

Many nobles hated absolutism (or the philosophy of a King having absolute power over the citizenry). They were made up of 400,000 men and women. They owned 25% of the land and collected seigneurial dues and rents from their peasant tenants.

3. Third Estate (who were the vast majority of the population. It included the middle class and the poor.

Doctors, journalists, lawyers, urban workers, etc. were in this class too). The peasants were in the Third Estate.

The Third Estate was diverse. The middle class in this instance is also called the bourgeoisie. The poor in France included urban workers, apprentices, journeymen, painters, cloth makers, etc.

Men and women earned little income. The Causes of the French Revolution 1). National debt-the French government spent more money than it took, which was caused by deficit spending.

France was nearing bankruptcy. France challenged British naval and commercial power in the Seven Years War and it was costly. After the Seven Years War, France lost its colonial possessions in continental North America and it established the destruction of the French Navy.

French forces were rebuilt and performed better in the American Revolutionary War, but it cost more money for France. The royal court at Versailles was isolated from and indifferent to the escalating crisis. The tax in France was a regressive tax system.

2). The middle class and the poor paid most of the taxes while the wealthy in the First and Second Estates paid little to no taxes.

3). Poor residents of France suffered hunger problems and starvation.

4). Influences from the Enlightenment principles (like the separation of church and state, free speech, separation of powers, opposition to absolute monarchs, and the freedom of the press).

4). Influences from the American Revolution (France supported the American Revolution and many believed that it could be copied in France) King Louis XVI He was the King of France during the French Revolution.

He tried to solve the economic problems in France. He allowed the growth of the debt in France after he spent huge money in the Seven Years War and the American Revolution. He continued to fund his lavish lifestyle.

By 1789, half of the government’s income from taxes went to He was not a strong leader. It is a historical fact that Freemasonry played an important role in the revolution. Freemasonry was recently invented in the modern era.

Many of the major players in the Revolution were Freemasons. King Louis XVI used Jacques Necker as an adviser. Jacques was a financial expert.

Necker wanted the king to end the huge spending, reform government, reduce extravagant court spending, and end tariffs on internal trade. Necker published a report to support his views and underestimated the deficit by roughly 36 million livres and he proposed restricting the power of the parlements (or courts of the ancient Regime). He wanted to tax the First and Second Estates, but Jacques was forced out by pressure from the clergy and the nobles (who refused to pay any taxes).

After Necker was gone, the economic crisis continued. Charles Alexandre de Calonne replaced Necker was the Comptrollership. The Estates General The Estates General was the legislative Congress of the French government.

The pressure for reform existed. the wealthy and the powerful classes wanted King Louis XVI to summon the Estates-General in order to handle the problems among the three estates. Louis XVI called on them to solve the economic and political problems in France.

The nobles hoped that the Estates General could allow the King to grant them privileges. By the end of 1788, food riots exists, France was near bankruptcy, and token actions weren’t working. King Louis xvi wanted the Estates General meeting to allow all three estates to show their grievances in notebooks or cashiers.

Many people wanted income, the freedom of the press, economic opportunities, etc. The Estates General meeting convened in May 5, 1789 in the Grands Salles des Menus-Plaisirs in Versailles. Only men who owned property could vote.

Delegates were mostly middle class people like lawyers, writers, etc. So, stalemate existed in the Congress. The Abb Siey s, a theorist and Catholic clergyman, argued the paramount importance of the Third Estate in the pamphlet Qu’est-ce que le tiers tat? (What is the Third Estate?) published in January, 1789.

He asserted: “What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been until now in the political order?

Nothing. What does it want to be? Something.” During the early parts of the proceedings, the First and Second Estates outvoted the Third Estate.

The Third Estate demanded that the credentials of deputies should be verified by all deputies, rather than each estate verifying the credentials of its own members; but negotiations with the other estates failed to achieve this. On 10 June 1789, Abb Siey s moved that the Third Estate, now meeting as the Communes (English: “Commons”) proceed with verifying its own powers and invite the other two estates to take part, but not to wait for them. They proceeded to do so two days later, completing the process on 17 June.

In June of 1789, The Third Estate united and make the Tennis Court Oath to fight for a constitution in France. This happened in a tennis court room. King Louis XVI begrudgingly accepted a French Constitution.

Royal troops gathered around Paris. There were rumors that the King wanted to dissolve the Assembly. The Third Estate formed the National Assembly to promote their own interests.

The Storming of the Bastille From 1789 to 1791, it was the era of the National Constituent Assembly. This happened on July 14, 1789 when more than 800 Parisians (or people from Paris) stormed to the Bastille (or a prison in Paris). First, the Parisians came to the gate of the Bastille.

The crowd wanted gunpowder and weapons to defend themselves from any possible attack from the King’s forces. The commander of the gate of the Bastille refused to open the gate. Later, the commander opened fire onto the protesters.

The crowd and 5 guards were killed. They opened the gates and released the prisoners. They wanted to oppose the monarchy and they desired change.

They acted in response to the rumors that the King wanted to end changes. The Governor Marquis Bernard de Launay was beaten, stabbed, and decapitated. The Bastille represented the years of abuse that the French people suffered by monarchy and the government.

The mob returned to the Hotel de Ville (city hall) and accused the pr v t des marchands (roughly, mayor) Jacques de Flesselles of treachery and butchered him. Jean-Sylvain Bailly, president of the Assembly at the time of the Tennis Court Oath, became the city’s mayor under a new governmental structure known as thecommune. The King visited Paris, where, on 17 July he accepted atricolore cockade, to cries of Vive la Nation (“Long live the Nation”) and Vive le Roi (“Long live the King”).

By 1880, the date of the storming of the Bastille is a French holiday like July 4th is an American holiday (of Independence Day). The French Revolution starts The French Revolution began in 1789. France experienced fear and excitement.

The influence of the French Revolution spread across Europe while other European monarchies like Prussia, etc. opposed the French Revolution as a threat to their conservative system. Paris was one epicenter of the Revolution.

Many factions wanted to gain power in France. There were moderate people in the French Revolution (like Marquis de Lafayette, who fought along side George Washington during the American Revolution). Lafayette headed the National Guard of mostly middle class militia created to respond if royal troops came into France.

They were the first group to don the tricolor of a red, white, and blue badge. This tricolor emblem would later be the national flag of France. There were more radical people like the Paris Commune.

They wanted to organize the people in the streets (like whole neighborhoods) for more radical change. Other groups were more radical than the Paris Commune too. The storming of the Bastille caused the National Assembly to act.

On August 4, 1789, the National Assembly via nobles voted to end their own privileges. They gave up their manorial dues, special hunting rights, exemption from taxes, and special legal status. The National Assembly ended the feudal system.

They also created the Declaration of the Rights of Man (which said that all men are born free and have equal rights). It was modeled after the Declaration of Independence which came about 13 years earlier. The French Declaration announced that, “all men were born and remain free and equal in rights.” It promoting the natural rights to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

All males citizens could vote. It promoted the freedom of religion and taxes to be levied according to the ability to pay. Women were excluded from the declaration, which was wrong.

Women like Olympe de Gouges wanted equal rights and suffrage (or the right to vote). She was a journalist. She wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen.

She wrote that “Woman is born free” and “her rights are the same as those of man.” Therefore, Gouges stated that, “all citizens, be they men or women, being equal in the stat’s eyes, must be equally eligible for all public offices, positions, and jobs.” King Louis XVI didn’t want to accept the reforms of the National Assembly, which included the Declaration of the Rights of Man document. Nobles enjoyed banquets and people were starving. In October 5, 1789, about 6,000 women marched 13 miles in the pouring rain from Paris to Versailles in trying to see the King.

People were angry at Marie Antoinette for her life of pleasure and extravagance. The women met with the King. The King and his family moved into the Tuileries palace.

The National Assembly continues onward. Its mostly bourgeois members tried to solve the financial crisis in France. On November 2, 1789, The National Assembly caused the Catholic property nationalized and otherwise expropriated.

By 1790, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, bishops and priests became elected, salaried officials. It ended papal authority over the French Church and dissolved convents and monasteries. Many bishops and priests refused to accept the Civil Constitution.

The Pope condemned it. Many French peasants (who were conservative and Catholic) rejected the policy. When the government punished the clergy who refuse to submit, the revolutionaries i Paris and the peasantry in the provinces became more divided.

In September 12, 1790, Jean-Paul Marat s L Ami du people (or the Friend of the People) is a radical publication appeared. In 1791, the National Assembly formed the Constitution of 1791. It created a limited, constitutional monarchy.

This ended the absolute monarchy of France, which had existed for centuries. Now, a new legislature could make laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peace. It has other reforms.

To moderates, this completed the French Revolution and to the other radicals, it did not. In June of 1791, King Louis XVI tried to escape, but he was captured and returned to Paris. This event was called the Royal family’s flight to Varennes.

The emigres (or nobles, clergy, etc. who fled France) told other nations about the events, Catherine the Great and other monarchs took steps to criticize the French Revolution. Prussia threatened France that if they harm the monarch in France, then they will invade France.

The National Assembly in October 1791 had a new session. Radicals started to talk over more. By 1792, France via the National Assembly declared war against Austria, Prussia, Britain, and other states.

In August of 1792, Parisians in large numbers stormed the royal palace of the Tuileries and killed the King’s guards. People started to kill nobles and priests found in prisoners accused of political offenses. The radical take control of France by this time.

This starts the Reign of Terror. A new legislative body called the Convention was created. Suffrage was given to all male citizens and the monarchy was abolished.

On September 3, 1791, the Constitution of 1791 is proclaimed. Days later, King Louis XVI accepts the Constitution and is restored to power. From January to March 1792, serious inflation began and there was food riots in Paris.

In April of 1792, there is war going on between France and Austria since France is opposed to the absolute monarchy and Austria wants it in France. In July 28, 1792, the Brunswick Manifesto is published. It threatened the people of Paris with punishment if they don t submit to the King.

It instigates panic that caused the September Massacres. This was when clergy and aristocrats were murdered by mons of people. The Jacobin Maximilien Robespierre called for the removal of the King in July 29, 1792.

The Reign of Terror Some, who supported the Revolution, wanted more radical changes. King Louis XIV and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed by the radicals. King Louis XVI experienced a trial in December of 1792.

He is condemned to death in January 17, 1793 and he was executed on January 21, 1793. The Reign of Terror was when the radicals in France killed thousands of people (to try to end the monarchy). Even people who were innocent and without links to the monarchy were killed.

The radicals in the French Revolutions were called sans-coulettes. Nobles, clergy, and others who left France were called the emigres. The sans-coultettes wanted a Republic (or a government ruled by elected representatives not by a monarch).

The Jacobins was a revolutionary club that was mostly made up of middle class lawyers and intellectuals who supported the French Revolution. The Reign of Terror lasted from September 1793 to July of 1794. The revolutionaries introduce the Revolutionary calendar starting with Year II on September 22, 1792.

One supporter of the Reign of Terror was Robespierre, but he would be executed too. People were executed by the guillotine. The Reign of Terror involved the surveillance and murder of people.

Some people were executed were innocent. On October 16, 1793,Marie Antoinette was executed. Many Girondin deputies were executed in October 31.

In 1794, more people were executed like the opponents of Robespierre in March 24, 1794. The Rise of Napoleon People were tired of the Reign of Terror since even innocent people were being slaughtered and murdered. So, France created the Directory in 1795.

The middle class and professional people ruled most of France during this time. Mostly men ruled the Directory. Napoleon rises in power.

He was born in the island of Corsica in 1769. He was once a soldier in the French army. Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais (the future Empress Josephine) on March 9, 1796.

Napoleon was a political leader in 1799. He overthrew the Directory and made the Consulate (or a three man governing board). The Consulate established the Bank of France in January 1, 1800.

By 1802, Napoleon gained more power and became First Consul and then Emperor by 1804.

He would soon invade many nations in Europe.

By Timothy